Tymnessos - Tuminehi

Tymnessos is located on the Elmalı – Kalkan road, to the north of Bezirgan village, at a strategic location that controls the mountain pass between Kaş, Elmalı and Kınık. The name of the city is mentioned as Tuminehi in Lycian sources. Tuminehi’s port settlement Etrituminehi (Artymnessos) is thought to be located at modern day Kalkan. The ancient road, coming from the south and passing through the east of the acropolis hill, extends towards the mountain pass in the north. Acropolis hill was surrounded by walls but there isn’t any identified structure. There is a castle structure 300 meters above the acropolis. Most of the burial sites are found along this road. There are many pigeon-hole type rock tombs on the east-facing side of the acropolis cliffs. The most striking tomb structure is the house-type rock tomb decorated with rich reliefs at the southernmost end of the ancient road. The chambers on the rocks to the left of the northern passage are dated to the dynastic period. According to Borchhardt, one of these might be a nymphaion and the other a cult area probably dedicated to Apollo and Artemis. Another monument dating to the dynastic period is a pillar tomb with a niche on its steep face. Because of the existence of this niche, Borchhardt says it could be a Cenotaph. So far, no excavation work has been carried out in Tymnessos.


Benndorf, O. & G. Niemann. 1884. Reisen in Lykien und Karien (Reisen im südwestlichen Kleinasien I), Wien.
Borchhardt, J., G. Neumann & K. Schultz. 2003. ‘Tuminehi/Tymnessos’, Adalya IV, 21-90.
Çevik, N. 2021. Lykia Kitabı: Arkeolojisi, Tarihi ve Kültürüyle Batı Antalya, Türk Tarih Kurumu, Ankara.

Image sources:
O. Benndorf & G. Niemann, 1884
J. Borchhardt et al., 2003
Bora Bilgin, 2022, 2023
Reha Özer, 2022,2023