Kadyanda - Kadawanti

The city is located on a hill in the south of the town of Üzümlü in the Fethiye district of Muğla. It was first identified by Charles Fellows in 1840. The Lycian name of the city is Kadawanti. The city coins bearing its Lycian name suggest that Kadyanda was an independent city during the dynastic period. Most probably it may have been connected to Caria in the 4th century BCE, but it is known that Kadyanda was a member of the Lycian League during the Hellenistic and Roman periods. Although there are monumental tombs dating to the 5th century BCE from the dynastic period, the majority of the ruins spread over the hill dates to the Roman period.
Other than the partial cleaning of the theater building in 1992, no excavation was carried out in the past. The first official excavations started in 2022. The south-facing theater building located in the southeast of the city is dated to the end of the 2nd century or the beginning of the 1st century BCE. Although 20 rows of seats were partially preserved, the stage building was destroyed. The agora of the city and a one-sided stadium are located to the northwest of the theater building. To the north of them are the remains of a bath, a temple and a large street passing through these ruins. Most of the tombs on the slopes of the hill are Lycian rock tombs.

Salas Tomb Monument

Despite being fragmented and scattered, it is the most preeminent monumental tomb structure in Kadyanda. The tomb has reliefs on the front and both sides. There is a bearded male figure with an oenochoe on the front face and the name “Salas” is written just to the left of the figure. There are combat scenes on both sides of the tomb. The base of the tomb was carved into a single rock block with a three-step foundation. The upper section of the monument is destroyed and its parts are scattered around. On the reliefs found in the scattered pieces which are drawn by Fellows, several people have been identified with their names written next to them, some in Greek and some in Lycian (TL32). Fellows suggested that this tomb monument may belong to Salas, the father of Hecatomnus. However, J. Borchhardt and G. Neumann argue that the tomb was built by Salas for his wife who was related to the Hecatomnus family. The tomb is dated to the 5th century BCE. Today, almost all the parts of the monument are either buried underground or covered by moss and brushwood.

Uzebeẽmi Tomb Monument

This monumental tomb has survived to the present day in a better condition than the Salas Monument. There are rich reliefs on both sides of the tomb, which were carved in a typical wooden Lycian house style. However, the relief details are highly weathered. The relief on the south side of the tomb shows a male figure reclining on a kline, while on the north side there is a helmeted and mounted warrior fighting enemies. The Lycian inscription on the northern side of the tomb indicates that the tomb was built by/for Uzebeẽmi. Borchhardt and Neumann date this monument to the second quarter of the 4th century BCE because of its stylistic similarity with the Pajawa sarcophagus in Xanthos.


Başgelen, N. (ed.) 2005. Lycian Journal 1892 – Ernst Krickl, Archaeology and Art Publication, İstanbul.
Benndorf, O. & G. Niemann. 1884. Reisen in Lykien und Karien (Reisen im südwestlichen Kleinasien I), Wien.
Borchhardt, J. & Neumann, G. 1968. ‘Dynastische Grabanlagen von Kadyanda’. AA 174-238.
Çevik, N. 2021. Lykia Kitabı: Arkeolojisi, Tarihi ve Kültürüyle Batı Antalya, Türk Tarih Kurumu, Ankara.
Döğerli-Başerkafaoğlu, P. 2023. ‘Surveys in the Necropolis of Cadianda’, Cedrus XI, 215-232.
Fellows, C. 1841. An Account of Discoveries of Lycia: Being a Journal Kept During a Second Excursion in Asia Minor, London.
Fellows, C. 1847. Lycia, Caria, Lydia, illustrated Mr. George Scharf with descriptive letter-press by Sir Charles Fellows, London.
Kalinka, E. 1901. Tituli Asiae Minoris, Vol.1, Vindobonae.
Wurster, W. W. 1980. ‘Survey antiker Stadte in Lykien’, Actes du Colloque sur la Lycie antique, 27-36.

Image sources:
British Museum Collection
C. Fellows, 1847
O. Benndorf & G. Niemann, 1884
E. Kalinka, 1901
J. Borchhardt & G. Neumann, 1968
W. W. Wurster, 1980
N. Başgelen, 2005
Tayfun Bilgin, 2022
P. Döğerli-Başerkafaoğlu, 2023
Bora Bilgin, 2022, 2024