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Antiphellos - Wehinta  

Antiphellos was founded as the port of the city of Phellos. By developing trade activities, it grew much larger than Phellos and by the Hellenistic period it become an independent city. There are coins minted under its own name. Lycian name of the city is Wehinta. There has not been a comprehensive excavation work in Antiphellos. The oldest of the visible structures are the tombs belonging to the dynastic period. At the neck of the peninsula, parallel to the sea rises the acropolis hill. Built on its southern slope, the Roman period theather is the best preserved building in the city. It was probably built on top of an older theather of the Hellenistic period. The theather was restored in 2011. The ancient city was located between the acropolis and the port to the east. Most of the buildings in this area are buried under the modern day settlement, although traces of the fortification walls surrounding the settlement area and the acropolis hill can still be seen. After a salvage excavation in 2012, the building that was labeled as bouleuterion in the map of Charles Texier, was identified as a Hellenistic temple structure. It was used for different purposes in later periods.

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Acropolis hill from east, and the doric tomb. The island at the back is Megisti(Kastellorizo). The ancient theater is at the south of acropolis hill, and the harbor on the east. The small harbor settlement of Sebeda (Bayındır Limanı) is located in the small bay at the far back. The rock-cut tombs on the northern hills of the city. The tomb with bilingual (Lycian and Greek) inscription (TL 56). The inscription says: 'Iktta, the son of Hla-, has built it himself for his wife and his children. And whoever brings (any) damage to it, let the mother of this precint and the mother of Phellos execute him!' (Woudhuizen, 2012) A rock-cut tomb on the acropolis hill. Two rock-cut tombs on the north slope of the acropolis hill. A rock-cut tomb near the harbor. Today, it is at the backyard of a restaurant. The Hellenistic period temple. The temple is lately used as a church. The 18 tombs found inside the building show that it was used as a cemetery during the Byzantine period. The outer walls of the temple. A Roman period cistern near the harbour. Today, it is under a restaurant. A sarcophagus standing in a junction point of the streets. A sarcophagus located in the eastern necropolis, which is used as an open-air marketplace today. A sarcophagus standing on the bank of the harbour.


The Lion Tomb
It is a classical Lycian sarcophagus rising on a hyposorion with a wooden imitation chest and a ogivally formed lid. The tomb is named after the two lion head-shaped protomes on each side of the lid. The sarcophagus, still standing in its original place, is now in the busy center of Kaş. 19th century travelers Spratt & Forbes noted that among the hundreds of sarcophagi found here, this tomb drew attention with both its architecture and the lenghty inscription on it. The 9-line inscription (TL 55) found on the north face is divided into stanzas and written in Lycian B, which is thought to be a poetic version of Lycian language. Although the content of the inscription has not been fully deciphered, it is understood that the tomb belongs to a person named Pixre. He may be the man depicted as standing in front of a seated woman on the relief of the lid pediment. Pixre probably had this tomb built for his entire family. The dynastic period tomb is one of the oldest in Antiphellos. Jan Zahle dates it to 390-380 BCE.

The inscription (TL 55) is written in Lycian B (also known as Milyan). A part of the decorative frieze.


The Doric Tomb
The tomb is located on the northwestern edge of the acropolis hill. It is a square planned tomb carved out of the bedrock and received the name from its Doric style. Except for the east-facing front side, it is surrounded by rock walls on three sides. The roof, which is thought to have been in the form of a pyramid, has not survived. There is an inscription in Greek above the entrance door. The tomb chamber has three klinai decorated with floral motifs. The most striking decoration is on the western wall and the corner projections, above the kline opposite the entrance. The 3,36 m long u-shaped frieze contains 26 female figures (dancing girls) holding hands. Unfortunately, the details of the figures are not well preserved due to the heavy wear. The tomb is dated to the 4th century BCE.







References:
Çevik, N. 2021. Lykia Kitabı: Arkeolojisi, Tarihi ve Kültürüyle Batı Antalya, Türk Tarih Kurumu, Ankara.
Fellows, C. 1839. A Journal Written During an Excursion in Asia Minor, London.
Fellows, C. 1847. Lycia, Caria, Lydia, illustrated Mr. George Scharf with descriptive letter-press by Sir Charles Fellows, London.
Gülşen, F. F. 1998. 'The Doric Rock Tomb at Antiphellos', Adalya 3, 63 – 86.
Mayer, L. 1803. Views in the Ottoman Empire, London.
Schürr, D. 2005. 'Das Pixre-Poem in Antiphellos', Kadmos 44, 95–164.
Texier, C. 1849. Description de l'Asie Mineure, Vol.3, Paris.
Woudhuizen, F. C. 2012. 'Lycian Forms of the Enclitic Pronoun of the 3rd Person: An Overview of the Relevant Data', CollAn XI, 415-436.
Zahle J. 1979. 'Lykische Felsgräber mit Reliefs aus dem 4. Jh. v. Chr.', JDI 94, 245–347.

Image sources:
L. Mayer, 1803
C. Fellows, 1839, 1847
British Museum
C. Texier, 1849
F. F. Gülşen, 1998
Htkava, 2004
Tayfun Bilgin, 2022
Bora Bilgin, 2022, 2023
Reha Özer, 2022, 2023


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Citation: Bora Bilgin, www.lycianmonuments.com